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    Advanced Mechanics

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    Post by Desch on Wed 20 May - 23:06

    Advanced Mechanics - A Guide by Desch
    Advanced Mechanics Hqdefault
    While Pokémon is a game that usually focuses on teambuilding, coverage, advanced game plans, and many other strategies, the game is still made up by some fundamental rules that make the game work the ways it does. Many chooses to not go deep into the mechanics of the game and find out how to optimize some small things, while others choose to do so and share their observations with others. After doing a couple of experiments and finding some interesting patterns, as well as looking at common mistakes, neat strategies and the probability of certain things occurring, I have made a list of all the relevant things that every veteran player of this game, in this generation, should know about Pokémon. But that doesn’t mean less experienced players should not take note from this guide. Everything is not of the same importance, and is more often than not only meant to expand your current knowledge of how things work in this game. After all, “It is the small differences that makes the big changes.”

    Natures are very important in competitive Pokémon. They give you a universal 10% boost in one stat and lowers another one with 10%. Note that these 10%’s can be used to its full potential if you know how things work. If you need some investment in 2 stats and does not know if you want to boost the one or the other with your nature, then use it one the stat you need to raise the most. Take Arceus for example. You want to outspeed +natured base 100s and to have the rest defense. You find out you either need to invest 224 EVs in speed with 32+ in Defense or 96+ with 168 in defense, what do you do? You chose the latter option as the amount of EVs invested in both stats are much closer to each other (96 and 168 are closer to each other than 224 and 32).
    Factors that adds HP
    + 1/16
    Leftovers/ Aqua Ring/ Ingrain/ Rain Dish/ Black Sludge/ Ice Body

    + 1/8
    Poison Heal/ Dry Skin/ Berries that may confuse

    + 1/4
    Water Absorb/ Volt Absorb/ Dry Skin/ Sitrus Berry/ Enigma berry

    + 1/3
    Regenerator/ Cheek Pouch

    + 1/2
    Recover/ Roost/ Wish/ Soft-Boiled/ Slack Off/ Milk Drink/ Heal Order/ Heal Pulse/ Moonlight/ Morning Sun

    + 3/4
    Moonlight/Morning Sun
    Factors that remove HP
    - 1/32
    SR x0.25

    - 1/16
    SR x0.5/ Weather damage/ Trap damage/ Badly Poison stage 1/ Black Sludge/ Heatproof Burn

    - 1/8
    SR x1/ 1 Spike/ Iron Barbs/ Rough Skin/ Burn/ Leech Seed/ Dry Skin/ Solar Power/ Black Sludge/ Toxic Poison/ Badly Poison stage 2/ Jaboca Berry/ Sticky Barb/ Bad Dreams/ Nightmare/ Spiky Shield

    - 1/6
    Rocky Helmet/ Trap damage + Binding Band

    - 3/16
    Badly Poison stage 3 /2 Spikes

    - 1/4
    SR x2/Substitute/Badly Poison stage 4/ 3 Spikes/ Curse/ Aftermath/ Struggle Recoil/ Powder

    - 5/16
    Badly Poison stage 5

    - 3/8
    Badly Poison stage 6

    - 1/2
    SR x4/ Belly Drum/ Curse/ Badly Poison stage 8/ Crash Damage/ Super Fang

    - 7/16
    Badly Poison stage 7

    - 9/16
    Badly Poison stage 9

    - 5/8
    Badly Poison stage 10

    - 11/16
    Badly Poison stage 11

    - 3/4
    Badly Poison stage 12

    - 13/16
    Badly Poison stage 13

    - 7/8
    Badly Poison stage 14

    - 15/16
    Badly Poison stage 15

    - 1/1
    Destiny Bond/ Perish Song/ Badly Poison stage 16
    Other Constant Factors
    Oran Berry (+10 HP)
    Berry Juice (+20 HP)

    Sonic Boom (-20 HP)
    Dragon Rage (-40 HP)
    Seismic Toss (-100 HP)*
    Night Shade (-100 HP)*

    *At Level 100
    Numbers with special properties
    Leftovers Number (+ Recover):
    Any number divisible by 16. Gives any poke with a Leftover-like item an advantage when healing every turn, as it maximizes the amount of HP you get every turn. It will completely heal neutral Stealth Rock damage in 2 turns.
    Substitute + Leftovers Number
    Any number that is 1 less than anything divisible by 4 if you want the ability to sub 5 times in a row. Any number that is divisible by 16 for maximum recovery. Any number higher than 404 is optimal (can’t be broken by Seismic Toss or Night Shade in one hit).
    Substitute + Pinch Berry Number (+ Recover)
    Any number divisible by 4. It activates the berry at 25% HP left instead of at 1% (at 50% and not 25% if the poke has Gluttony)
    Life Orb Number
    Any number not divisible by 10, most optimal when it is 1 minus any number divisible by 10 (When the HP number ends with a “9”). 19 is the best Life Orb number, the higher it gets, the less relevant this number becomes.
    Poison Heal + Sub (+ Protect) Number
    Any number that is either 1, 2 or 3 more than a number divisible by 8. (8k+1), (8k+2) or (8k+3). Can be paired with Protect to heal all damage lost from the sub.
    Poison Heal + Sub Number + Roost (+ Protect) Number
    Any number that is either 2 more than a number divisible by 8. (8k+2). Can be paired with Protect to heal all damage lost from the sub.
    Recover Number
    Any even number
    Belly Drum + Sitrus Berry
    Any number divisible by 2
    Substitue + Sitrus Berry
    Any number divisible by 4. Should only be used with Unburden strategies, if anything.
    Regenerator Number
    Any number divisible by 3. Usually better as an odd number (if so, it also becomes a Stealth Rock number as well).
    Regenerator + Bad Dreams Number
    Any odd number divisible by 3 and is 1 less than any number divisible by 8.
    Regenerator + Leftovers (+ Recover)
    Any number divisible by 48.
    Regenerator + Life Orb
    Any number that is 1 less than a product of 10 and is dividable by 3.
    Regenerator + Leftovers + Substitute
    Any number 3 more than anything divisible by 12. (12k+3)
    Regenerator + Life Orb + Substitute
    Any number that is 1 less than a product of 10, is dividable by 3 and is 1 more than any number dividable by 4
    Stealth Rock Number
    If the pokes is x4 weak to SR, then give them any odd number as their HP. This also applies if it is a Pokémon without Leftovers.
    Bulk and Defenses
    Maximized Bulk in either Def or SpD
    With 508 EVs:
    252 HP / 252 Def or 252 SpD

    With less than 508 EVs:
    Def ≈ HP or SpD ≈ HP
    Maximized Mixed Bulk

    Theoretically max HP with max investment in both defenses, which need to be as close to each other as possible. Otherwise, the formula below can be used, which also gives us some versatile answers:

    Note that “MinDef” means no investment, and not i.e. no less IVs. MaxDef means the highest Def the poke can get with in any given scenario, with a neutral nature.

    Fill in the blanks and put it into GeoGebra (or something similar), find the highest point on the graph (between x=0 and x=(the total amount of EVs you are using to invest in bulk, divided by 10)(The numbers is at most 252/10), and use that for reference to find a new x. Multiply x by 10 and round it up to the closest number dividable by 4. This will be one of the numbers of EVs the optimal set will have. There will be 2 other numbers, you need, one of them is just 252 (max investment) while the other one is 508-x-252 and then you have your 3 numbers. It is up to you where you want to place these three numbers. It is usually HP gets most, then the worst defense, and then the best defense with worst investment of the three. Note that this is not always the best, and the higher HP you poke has, the less likely it is to be true. Chansey and Blissey do not have to follow this rule and can be given 252 EVs in Physical Defense, because sometimes, that is where you want it.

    Also note that since you have to round it up to the closest number divisible by 4, it can be off by 1 sometimes, which means if you follow the standard procedure, you might end up with max investment in HP and i.e. a Def stat of 232 with a SpD stat of 230, which is not optimal (both should be at 231, instead). The last thing I should say is that this does not include any natures other than the neutral ones.
    Download Boost Modification
    Def ≥ SpD --> SpA Boost
    Def < SpD --> Atk Boost

    This means that you can force any potential opposing Download users to gain a “bad” boost and give you an advantage. In Ubers, you should manipulate a SpA Boost. In any other tiers an Atk boost should be manipulated.
    Items and Abilities that boosts defense
    Eviolite Universal 50% boost in Def and SpD for pokes that can evolve
    Assault Vest Universal 50% boost to SpD
    Soul Dew Lati’s gets a universal 50% boost SpD (and SpA)
    Metal Powder Ditto’s Defense Doubles (Pre-Transformed)
    DeepSeaScale Universal doubling of  CLamperl’s SpD
    Resist Berries One Universal halving of any damage once
    Marvel Scale boosts physical defense when under a status condition
    Fur Coat doubles your physical defense
    Filter makes suppereffective hits only deal x 0.75 damage
    Thick Fat halves damage from Fire- and Ice-Type attacks
    Plus raises SpD by 50% when in the same battle as another poke with the Minus Ability
    Multiscale doubles both defences when at full health
    Heatproof halves damage from Fire-Type attacks
    increases the user's Defense stat by 50% when Grassy Terrain is active in battle

    Other than maximizing this on an attacker, there is not much to say about it. What could be said, though, is that when you are not running any physical moves (or only something like Rapid Spin), you should use 0 IVs in Attack to reduce damage from Foul Play and Confusion.

    Also, remember how much STAB and other effects (like weather, abilities, etc.) effect the power of your moves. You don't want to use moves that are weaker than others. Look at a damage calculator if you're in doubt.

    Items and Abilities that boost attack:
    Choice Band Universal 50% boost in Attack
    Choice Specs Universal 50% boost in Sp. Attack
    Life Orb Universal 30% boost to SpA and Atk
    Expert Belt Universal 20% boost to all super-effective attacks
    Silk Scarf/Plates Universal 20% boost in their respective types
    Muscle Band Universal 10% boost to all physical attacks
    Wise Glasses Universal 10% boost to all special attacks
    Soul Dew Universal 50% boost to SpA (and SpD) to Latias and Latios
    Lustrous Orb Universal 20% boost in Dragon and Water moves on Palkia
    Adamant Orb Universal 20% boost in Dragon and Steel moves on Dialga
    Griseous Orb Universal 20% boost in Dragon and Ghost moves on Giratina
    Light Ball Universal doubling of Pikachu’s SpA and Atk
    Thick Club Universal doubling of Attack stat of Marowak/Cubone
    DeepSeaTooth Universal doubling of Clamperl’s SpA
    Adaptability Universal x1.33 boost to users STAB attacks
    Aerialte/Refrigerate/Pixilate Changes the type of Normal-Type attacks and multiply them by x 1.3
    Analytic Boosts users attacks if moving after its opponent
    Blaze/Torrent/Overgrow/Swarm 50% boost to their respective type
    Fairy/Dark Aura boost all Dark/Fairy-Types by 33.3%
    Defeatist halves Atk and SpA when under 50% health
    Flare Boost boosts SpA by x 1.5 when burned
    Guts boost Atk by 50% when under a status condition, ignore burn Atk drop
    Huge/Pure Power doubles the Atk of the user
    Hustle boost physical attacks by 50%, but lowers accuracy by 20%
    Iron Fist boost punching moves by 20%
    Mega Launcher boost pulse-moves by 50%
    Minus boost SpA by 50% when in the same battle as someone with the Plus ability
    Parental Bond makes you attack an extra time with half damage
    Reckless boost recoil-moves by 20%
    Rivalry ± 25% in Atk, depending the gender of the defending Pokémon
    Sand Force boost Rock, Ground- and Steel types by 30% under Sandstorm
    Sheer Force boost moves with side effects by 30% and ignore Life Orb recoil on those attacks
    Slow Start temporarily halves Attack (and Speed)
    Solar Power boosts SpA by 50% under sunlight
    Strong Jaw boosts biting moves by 50%
    Technician boosts all moves with 60 base power or lower by 50%
    Tinted Lens doubles the power of "not very effective" attacks
    Tough Claws boost contact moves by 1/3
    Toxic Boost increases Attack by 30% when Poisoned
    Speed and Turn Order
    Speed is obviously very important in this game, and it is important to know how to use it well. Most of you knows the common rules; use 0 Speed IVs when using Trick Room based Pokémons or something with Gyro Ball. While those are obvious, there are still some other things that should be thought about when talking about Speed and turn order.

    While outspeeding other pokes are very often important, sometimes you’d actually like to out-slow them instead. Examples of scenarios where this is beneficial are for bulky clerics who would enjoy getting statused before using Heal Bell/aromatherapy. This is also especially important if the does not have any strong moves and maybe even if they only have Wish as their recovery. Another good example is against Aegislash. Because of the way Aegislash changes its form, it will be most optimal to move after he’s done so.
    Items and Abilities that modify Speed and turn order
    Choice Scarf – Universal 50% boost to holders’ speed
    Quick Claw – Every turn the holder have a 20% chance of moving first in its priority bracket
    Custap Berry – Lets you move first in your priority bracket in a pinch
    Quick Powder – Doubles Ditto’s speed pre-transformed
    Iron Ball – Halves your Speed
    Lagging Tail – Makes you move last in the priority bracket Unburden – Doubles speed after consuming an held item
    Stall – Moves last in the priority Bracket
    Prankster – Gives every non-attacking move +1 priority
    Sand Rush/Swift Swim/Chlorophyl doubles Speed in their respective weathers
    Quick Feet  increases the user's Speed stat by 50% when the user is inflicted with a status condition. The speed drop of paralysis does not occur.
    Miscellaneous Speed Strategies / Mechanics
    Speedcreeping, giving your poke some speed so it might outspeed other pokes who run similar sets and get an advantage.

    To find out how much speed you need on a poke with Scarf or how much speed it needs if it goes to +2 speed, simply divide the speed of the poke you want to outspeed by 1.5 if scarf and by 2 if you are going to +2.

    Faster Poison Heal + Sub + Protect, allows you to negate all damage you lose from sub while stalling your opponent.

    Trick Room + Destiny Bond , if your opponent does not have any way to take you down without getting dragged down by Destiny Bond, they will never be able to beat down your poke on the turn Trick Room will end.

    Mega-Evolution, may change your speed. Note that turn order is determined before the turn starts, which means a Swampert in rain mega evolving will still only have the speed of a regular Swampert on the turn he mega evolves. An Ampharos will keep the regular form’s speed until the end of the turn.

    Unburden + consumable item (+ sub), let’s you activate item to get faster

    Slow U-Turn / Volt Switch, gives you a free switch-in if you are slower.

    Quick Claw, gives you a 20% chance to move first in your priority bracket. Can change a game drastically in one turn.

    Encore after Protect, if the opponent uses Protect, and you are faster, you can lock them into Encore for free, if less they have other moves with priority.

    Fast Sub + Brightpowder, gives you the option to fish for hax (misses) for free.

    Fast Destiny Bond + Focus Punch/Revenge/Vital Throw/Avalanche, will always win or tie against something that does not carry any status-like moves or any slower priority moves.

    Ditto vs Ditto, The slower Ditto will win (Ditto can’t transformed into an already transformed Pokémon).
    List of Priorities:
    Priority Moves
    +8 Quick Claw/Custap Berry/O-Power trigger message
    +7 Pursuit (when target switches out)
    +6 Switching out, rotating, using items, (escaping), charging of Focus Punch, Mega Evolution
    +5 Helping Hand
    +4 Detect, King's Shield, Magic Coat, Protect, Spiky Shield, Snatch
    +3 Endure, Fake Out, Quick Guard, Wide Guard, Crafty Shield
    +2 Extreme Speed, Feint, Follow Me, Rage Powder
    +1 Ally Switch, Aqua Jet, Baby-Doll Eyes, Bide, Bullet Punch, Ice Shard, Ion Deluge, Mach Punch,
    Powder, Quick Attack, Shadow Sneak, Sucker Punch, Vacuum Wave, Water Shuriken
    0 All other moves, shifting
    -1 Vital Throw
    -2 None
    -3 Focus Punch
    -4 Avalanche, Revenge
    -5 Counter, Mirror Coat
    -6 Circle Throw, Dragon Tail, Roar, Whirlwind
    -7 Trick Room
    -8 None
    Stat Boost Mechanics
    As you hopefully know, it is possible to boost and lower stats in this game. You can do this up and down 6 stages, but you should know how these stats rise, sometimes in conjunction with other factors and use the knowledge to your favor. We can divide all stats into 2 categories; The normal and the not-normal, the first one being every measurable stat (excluding HP), and the latter being the remaining ones (Accuracy and Evasion).

    The normal ones all go work the same way. The numbers to the right shows how much it increases/decreases when the stat gets boosted (the positive boosts)/lowered (the negative boosts) by 1.
    -6 = 15% (x0.75)
    -5 = 20% (x 0.75)
    -4 = 25% (x 0.6)
    -3 = 33% (x 0.67)
    -2 = 50% (x 0.67)
    -1 = 75% (x 0.75)
    +0 = 100% (x 1)
    +1 = 150% (x 1.5)
    +2 = 200% (x 1.3)
    +3 = 250% (x 1.25
    +4 = 300% (x 1.2)
    +5 = 350% (x 0.167)
    +6 = 400% (x 0.115)

    Some helpful information:

    2 Hits at -1 is equal to 1 hit at +1, the latter gives you a higher chance to get a crit, whilst the latter is the better option if you're trying to sweep with Swords Dance
    2 Hits at +2 is 50% stronger than 1 hit at +3, meaning it is usually better to attack right off the bat whilst boosting up if you fear getting KO'ed.

    Universal Stat Boosts
    [hide]I earlier mentioned something about “universal boosts” and this is where that comes in. The boost gathered by those items (or abilities) are constant, and will always apply the same way, no matter what. i.e. Soul Dew is the same as 1 Calm Mind, but only when at +0. At +1, another Calm Mind would get you at x 2.0, while at +1 with Soul Dew, you will be at x 2.25 and when you are at -1 and use Calm Mind, you will be at x 112.5 instead of only at neutral. That is very important to remember.

    This shows the stats when they are boosted/lowered by 2
    -6 = 15% (x0.6)
    -4 = 25% (x 0.5)
    -2 = 50% (x0.5)
    +0 = 100% (x 0)
    +2 = 200% (x 2)
    +4 = 300% (x 1.5)
    +6 = 400% (x 0.3)

    The things you should note is that 2 hits at neutral is the same as 1 hit at +2. But 2 hits at +2 is better than 1 hit at +4. Use this knowledge to your advantage when considering if you should continue to set up or just attack, it often depends on the situation you are in, though. Another important thing to know here is that the first 2 times you use i.e. Draco Meteor, your SpA is cut in half.

    -1 = 75% (x 0.75)
    +1 = 150% (x 2)
    +3 = 250% (x 1.67)
    +5 = 350% (x 1.71)

    This shows how your stats will increase by 2, after a stat has been lowered by 1. This is most relevant with a Swords Dance user against an Intimidate user. 2 attacks a -1 is the same as 1 attack at +1. One crit at -1 + another hit at -1 is also equal to one crit at +1, interestingly enough. If  you SD a second time, your stats will increase by 2/3. This is just some examples. Use these numbers when you are in the right scenario and know what will give you the best odds at winning.
    Evasion, Accuracy and Hit Rate
    It gets higher in a different way than the other stats:
    -6 = 33%
    -5 = 38%
    -4 = 43%
    -3 = 50%
    -2 = 60%
    -1 = 75%
    +0 = 100%
    +1 = 133%
    +2 = 167%
    +3 = 200%
    +4 = 233%
    +5 = 267%
    +6 = 300%

    Evasion and Chance to Hit

    How to calculate it
    The probability that a move will hit is calculated as follows:
    Advanced Mechanics Accuracy_calc
    P = Abase * Accuracy / Evasion
    Abase is the base accuracy of the move (in percent - e.g. a base accuracy of 95 is counted as 0.95),
    Accuracy is the current accuracy stat of the user (in percent - e.g. raising accuracy by three stages raises this number to 2), and
    Evasion is the current evasion stat of the target (in percent - e.g. lowering evasion by two stages lowers this number to 0.6).
    If P is greater than 1, the move will surely hit. In a 2-on-2 battle, it is possible for a move that hits two or three targets to miss some of the targets and hit others - the probabilities are calculated individually for each target.
    100 % Accurate Moves (Ex: Flamethrower, Thunderbolt)
    100% vs. Brightpowder = 90.00%
    100% vs. +1 evasion = 75.19%
    100% vs. +2 evasion = 59.88%
    100% vs. +3 evasion = 50.00%
    100% vs. +4 evasion = 42.91%
    100% vs. +5 evasion = 37.45%
    100% vs. +6 evasion = 33.33%
    100% vs. +6 evasion with Brightpowder = 30.00%
    100% vs. +6 evasion + Sand Veil / Snow Cloak + Brightpowder = 24.00%
    95% Accurate Moves (Ex: Spacial Rend, Sacred Fire, Aeroblast, Pin Missile)
    95% vs. Brightpowder = 85.50%
    95% vs. +1 evasion = 71.42%
    95% vs. +2 evasion = 56.88%
    95% vs. +3 evasion = 47.50%
    95% vs. +4 evasion = 40.77%
    95% vs. +5 evasion = 35.58%
    95% vs. +6 evasion = 31.66%
    95% vs. +6 evasion with Brightpowder = 28.5%
    90% Accurate Moves (Ex: Rock Slide, Psycho Boost, Draco Meteor, Overheat)
    90% vs. Brightpowder = 81.00%
    90% vs. +1 evasion = 67.66%
    90% vs. +2 evasion = 53.89%
    90% vs. +3 evasion = 45.00%
    90% vs. +4 evasion = 38.62%
    90% vs. +5 evasion = 33.70%
    90% vs. +6 evasion = 30.00%
    90% vs. +6 evasion with Brightpowder = 27.00%
    85% Accurate Moves (Ex: Fire Blast, Gear Grind, Megahorn, Power Whip, Will-O-Wisp, Tail Slap)
    85% vs. Brightpowder = 76.50%
    85% vs. +1 evasion = 63.90%
    85% vs. +2 evasion = 50.89%
    85% vs. +3 evasion = 42.5%
    85% vs. +4 evasion = 36.48%
    85% vs. +5 evasion = 31.83%
    85% vs. +6 evasion = 28.33%
    85% vs. +6 evasion with Brightpowder = 25.50%
    80% Accurate Moves (Ex: Hydro Pump, Stone Edge, Dark Void)

    80% vs. Brightpowder = 72.00%
    80% vs. +1 evasion = 60.15%
    80% vs. +2 evasion = 47.90%
    80% vs. +3 evasion = 40.00%
    80% vs. +4 evasion = 34.33%
    80% vs. +5 evasion = 29.96%
    80% vs. +6 evasion = 26.66%
    80% vs. +6 evasion with Brightpowder = 24.00%
    70% Accurate Moves (Ex: Thunder, Focus Blast, Hurricane)
    70% vs. Brightpowder = 63.00%
    70% vs. +1 evasion = 52.63%
    70% vs. +2 evasion = 41.91%
    70% vs. +3 evasion = 35.00%
    70% vs. +4 evasion = 30.04%
    70% vs. +5 evasion = 26.21%
    70% vs. +6 evasion = 23.33%
    70% vs. +6 evasion with Brightpowder = 21.00%

    Chance to Hit

    Example: Moving 0/1
    The first number represents the number of successes, while the second is the number of attempts. In this case the probability represents the likelihood of NOT moving with a single attempt under these parameters.

    30% Flinch + Paralysis
    Moving 0/1
    [(0.3) + (0.7)(0.25)](100) = 47.5%

    Moving 1/1
    (0.7)(0.75)(100) = 52.5%

    Moving 0/2
    (.475^2)(100) = 22.5625%

    Moving 1/2
    [(.475)(.525) + (.475)(.525)](100) = 49.875%

    Moving 2/2
    (.525^2)(100) = 27.5625%
    60% Flinch + Paralysis
    Moving 0/1
    [(0.6) + (0.4)(0.25)](100) = 70%

    Moving 1/1
    (0.4)(0.75)(100) = 30%

    Moving 0/2
    [(0.6) + (0.4)(0.25)][(0.6) + (0.4)(0.25)](100) = 49%

    Moving 1/2
    [(0.7)(0.3) + (0.3)(0.7)](100) = 42%

    Moving 2/2
    (0.4)(0.75)(0.4)(0.75)(100) = 9%

    Moving 0/3
    (0.7^3)(100) = 34.3%

    Moving 1/3
    (0.3)(0.7)(0.7)(3)(100) = 44.1%

    Moving 2/3
    (0.3)(0.3)(0.7)(3)(100) = 18.9%

    Moving 3/3
    (0.3^3)(100) = 2.7%

    Moving 0/4
    (0.7^4)(100) = 24.01%

    Moving 1/4
    (0.3)(0.7)(0.7)(0.7)(4)(100) = 41.16%

    Moving 2/4
    (0.3)(0.3)(0.7)(0.7)(6)(100) = 26.46%

    Moving 3/4
    (0.3)(0.3)(0.3)(0.7)(4)(100) = 7.56%

    Moving 4/4
    (0.3^4)(100) = 0.81%
    70% Accuracy Moves
    Hit 0/2
    (0.3^2)(100) = 9%

    Hit 1/2
    (0.3)(0.7)(2)(100) = 42%

    Hit 2/2
    (0.7^2)(100) = 49%

    Hit 0/3
    (0.3^3)(100) = 2.7%

    Hit 1/3
    (0.3)(0.3)(0.7)(3)(100) = 18.9%

    Hit 2/3
    (0.3)(0.7)(0.7)(3)(100) = 44.1%

    Hit 3/3
    (0.7^3)(100) = 34.3%

    Hit 0/4
    (0.3^4)(100) = 0.81%

    Hit 1/4
    (0.3^3)(0.7)(4)(100) = 7.56%

    Hit 2/4
    (0.7)(0.7)(0.3)(0.3)(6)(100) = 26.46%

    Hit 3/4
    (0.3)(0.7^3)(4)(100) = 41.16%

    Hit 4/4
    (0.7^4)(100) = 24.01%

    King’s Rock + 5 hit move

    Hit 0/1 = 41%

    Hit 0/2 = 17%

    Hit 1/2  = 48.38%

    King’s Rock + 6 hit move

    Hit 0/1 = 47%

    Hit 0/2 = 22.09%

    Hit 1/2 = 49.82%
    Other things that raise accuracy:
    Victory Star raises all allies’ accuracy by 10%
    Wide Lens raises holders accuracy by 10%
    Zoom Lens raises holders accuracy by 20% is moving after its opponent
    Compound Eyes raises users accuracy by 30%
    No Guard gives every move used by and against the holder perfect accuracy (can’t miss)

    These moves have “infinite” accuracy:
    Aerial Ace
    Aura Sphere
    Blizzard (in hail)
    Disarming voice
    Feint Attack
    Magical Leaf
    Magnet Bomb
    Shadow Punch
    Shock Wave
    Thunder (in rain)
    Vital Throw
    Critical Hit Ratio (Gen VI)
    +0 = 6.25%
    +1 = 12.5%
    +2 = 50%
    +3 = 100%

    This is maybe the most unusual and less known modifier of “stats”. Basically, when you are at +3, you will always get a critical hit, if less you are up against something with Shell Armor. The things that boost the critical hit rate stacks. Here is a list of the things that all raise the ratio (either by 1 or 2). The ones in the same class cannot be stacked together, including itself.
    Moves with natural high critical hit rate (+1):
    Air Cutter
    Attack Order
    Blaze Kick
    Cross Chop
    Cross Poison
    Drill Run
    Karate Chop
    Leaf Blade
    Night Slash
    Poison Tail
    Psycho Cut
    Razor Leaf
    Razor Wind
    (Shadow Blast)
    Shadow Claw
    Sky Attack
    Spacial Rend
    Stone Edge
    Super Luck ability (+1)
    Held Item:
    Razor Claw / Scope Lens (+1)
    Stick (Farfetch’d only) (+2)
    Lucky Punch (Chansey Only) (+2)
    Focus Energy (+2)
    Consuming Lansat berry (+2)
    Guaranteed crit-moves:
    Frost Breath (+3)
    Storm Throw (+3)
    More general theory of critical hits:
    The only way to lower the crit ratio is by using Haze or if the user with the boost(s) switches out, by any means other than Baton Pass.

    In gen VI a crit will ignore all the defensive benefits another poke has and any stat disadvantages you are at, while it will keep everything that is beneficial for the user. A critical hit hits for 1.5 damage, but with the Ability Sniper, it hits for an additional 1.5 multiplier (x 2.25).
    Critical Hits chances:
    Double Crit
    (.0625^2)(100) = 0.390625%

    Triple Crit
    (.0625^3)(100) = 0.0244140625%

    At Least One Crit in Five Turns
    (.9375^5)(100) – 100 = 27.5803566%

    At Least One Crit in Ten Turns
    (.9375^10)(100) – 100 = 47.5539525%

    At Least One Crit in Twenty Turns
    (.9375^20)(100) – 100 = 72.49412101%

    At Least One Crit in Thirty Turns
    (.9375^30)(100) – 100 = 85.57425364%
    General Theory
    Ghost-Types can’t be trapped by any means, other than losing their type.

    Pokémon with the Shadow Tag ability can be trapped, but not by other Shadow Tag users. The Arena Trap or Magnet ability does not enable others with the same ability to escape if they are affected by it.

    All trapping effects are removed once the one trapping switches out. One exception is in gen IV and earlier, where you could Baton Pass the effects of Mean Look and Block.
    These moves prevent other pokes from switching if successful:
    Fire Spin
    Magma Storm
    Sand Tomb

    Mean Look
    Spider Web
    Shed Shell enables any poke to switch out.
    Moves With Special Properties
    Item Dependent attacks
    Is a move that can usually only be used one time per Pokémon (can be used more if you have Harvest or Recycle). You lose your item if you use Fling against Protect.

    List of most relevant fling items:
    Iron Ball – 130 Base Power, (but halves your speed)
    Hard Stone – 100 Base Power, boosts Rock-Type moves by x1.2
    Flame Orb - Burns the target, 30 Base Power
    King's Rock - Causes the target to flinch, 30 Base Power
    Light Ball - Paralyzes the target, 30 Base Power
    Mental Herb - Cures infatuation from the target, 10 Base Power
    Poison Barb - Poisons the target, 70 Base Power
    Razor Fang - Causes the target, to flinch 30 Base Power
    Toxic Orb - Badly poisons the target, 30 Base Power
    White Herb - Restores lowered stats of the target, 10 Base Power
    Natural Gift
    Is a Normal-Type move whose power and type is dependent on the berry the user has. If the user does not hold a berry, or can’t use it (Knock Off, Klutz, Embargo, Unnerve, Magi Room) the move will fail. It is not affected by Pixilate/Refigerate/Aerialte, but is affected by Ion Deluge, if the attack itself is of the Norma-Type.
    List of all Berries and their corresponding types and base power:
    Cheri Berry, Fire-Type, 80 Base Power
    Chesto Berry, Water-Type, 80 Base Power
    Pecha Berry, Electric-Type, 80 Base Power
    Rawst Berry, Grass-Type, 80 Base Power
    Aspear Berry, Ice-Type, 80 Base Power
    Leppa Berry, Fighting-Type, 80 Base Power
    Oran Berry, Poison-Type, 80 Base Power
    Persim Berry, Ground-Type, 80 Base Power
    Lum Berry, Flying-Type, 80 Base Power
    Sitrus Berry, Psychic-Type, 80 Base Power
    Figy Berry, Bug-Type, 80 Base Power
    Wiki Berry, Rock-Type, 80 Base Power
    Mago Berry, Ghost-Type, 80 Base Power
    Aguav Berry, Dragon-Type, 80 Base Power
    Iapapa Berry, Dark-Type, 60 Base Power
    Razz Berry, Steel, 80 Base Power
    Bluk Berry, Fire, 90 Base Power
    Nanab Berry, Water, 90 Base Power
    Wepear Berry, Electric, 90 Base Power
    Pinap Berry, Grass, 90 Base Power
    Pomeg Berry, Ice, 90 Base Power
    Kelpsy Berry, Fighting, 90 Base Power
    Qualot Berry, Poison, 90 Base Power
    Hondew Berry, Ground, 90 Base Power
    Grepa Berry, Flying, 90 Base Power
    Tamato Berry, Psychic, 90 Base Power
    Cornn Berry, Bug, 90 Base Power
    Magost Berry, Rock, 90 Base Power
    Rabuta Berry, Ghost, 90 Base Power
    Nomel Berry, Dragon, 90 Base Power
    Spelon Berry, Dark, 90 Base Power
    Pamtre Berry, Steel, 90 Base Power
    Watmel Berry, Fire, 100 Base Power
    Durin Berry, Water, 100 Base Power
    Belue Berry, Electric, 100 Base Power
    Occa Berry, Fire, 80 Base Power
    Passho Berry, Water, 80 Base Power
    Wacan Berry, Electric, 80 Base Power
    Rindo Berry, Grass, 80 Base Power
    Yache Berry, Ice, 80 Base Power
    Chople Berry, Fighting, 80 Base Power
    Kebia Berry, Poison, 80 Base Power
    Shuca Berry, Ground, 80 Base Power
    Coba Berry, Flying, 80 Base Power
    Payapa Berry, Psychic, 80 Base Power
    Tanga Berry, Bug, 80 Base Power
    Charti Berry, Rock, 80 Base Power
    Kasib Berry, Ghost, 80 Base Power
    Haban Berry, Dragon, 80 Base Power
    Colbur Berry, Dark, 80 Base Power
    Babiri Berry, Steel, 80 Base Power
    Chilan Berry, Normal, 80 Base Power
    Liechi Berry, Grass, 100 Base Power
    Ganlon Berry, Ice, 100 Base Power
    Salac Berry, Fighting, 100 Base Power
    Petaya Berry, Poison, 100 Base Power
    Apicot Berry, Ground, 100 Base Power
    Lansat Berry, Flying, 100 Base Power
    Starf Berry, Psychic, 100 Base Power
    Enigma Berry, Bug, 100 Base Power
    Micle Berry, Rock, 100 Base Power
    Custap Berry, Ghost, 100 Base Power
    Jaboca Berry, Dragon, 100 Base Power
    Rowap Berry, Dark, 100 Base Power
    Roseli Berry, Fairy, 80 Base Power
    Kee Berry, Fairy, 100 Base Power
    Maranga Berry, Dark, 100 Base Power
    Is a powerful Poison-Type move that can be used as much as you would like (even after switching out) after you have successfully consumed and received an effect from a berry, whether this be from naturally using it, Bug Bite, Fling or Pluck. It works as long as the berry activates something. Using a berry through Natural Gift or Fling will not enable you to use Belch.
    Psyshock, Psystrike and Secret Sword
    These are all special moves that are based off the attacker's SpA and the defending poke's Def. In other words, a special move that hits the defence stat. Other things to note from these attacks is that it is still Mirror Coat that reflects them back, and Light Screen that lowers their power. There is no physical equivalent of these moves.
    Trick, Switcheroo and Knock Off
    It is very little to say about these moves, as the first two are rarely used and the latter one is well known in this generation. However, every poison-type should use Black Sludge instead of Leftovers just in order to cripple pokes with Trick or Switcheroo. Additionally, Arceus can’t receive a plate by tricking, thus making the plates better than the other similar items that boost one type each by 1.2 in the Ubers tier. Additionally, any Item that changes a Pokémon's form cannot be tricked or knocked off. The same goes for any Pokémon with the Sticky Hold Ability and a Pokémon behind a substitute. Note that Knock Off's power will get its power increased by 50% as long as the opposing Pokémon does have an item, regardless if it gets knocked off or not.

    If you get tricked a choice item before you move, you get locked into that move, if you get the item after you have moved, you can still change your move the following turn, if wanted.
    Protect Breaking Attacks
    Shadow Force, Phantom Force and Feint break through Protect, Detect, Spiky Shield and King’s Shield
    This moves changes its type depending on which plate is being wielded by its user. If no plat is held, it will have be Normal-Type. If a Ditto copies a pokemon with this attack, Ditto's Judgment will still be Normal-Type, as long as Ditto does not hold any Plates, despite what item the opposing Pokémon have.
    EV'ing in Little Cup
    Chart of EVs needed to boost stats
    Base Stats that end in a "0": 36 EVs (+1), 116 EVs (+2), 196 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "1": 28 EVs (+1), 108 EVs (+2), 188 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "2": 20 EVs (+1), 100 EVs (+2), 180 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "3": 12 EVs (+1), 92 EVs (+2), 172 EVs (+3), 252 EVs (+4)

    Base Stats that end in a "4": 4 EVs (+1), 84 EVs (+2), 164 EVs (+3), 244 EVs (+4)

    Base Stats that end in a "5": 76 EVs (+1), 156 EVs (+2), 236 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "6": 68 EVs (+1), 148 EVs (+2), 228 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "7": 60 EVs (+1), 140 EVs (+2), 220 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "8": 52 EVs (+1), 132 EVs (+2), 212 EVs (+3)

    Base Stats that end in a "9": 44 EVs (+1), 124 EVs (+2), 204 EVs (+3)
    The above chart is a pattern. After the first x EVs are invested to raise a stat by 1, 80 EVs are added to x to increase the stat by 2, 160 for an increase of 3, and 240 for an increase of 4. 8 EVs differentiates the starting number x (EVs needed to raise a stat by 1) from each base stat ending.
    Lower IVs can be negated by adding an extra 4 EVs for each lowered IV. Example: a Murkrow with anAtk IV of 31 need 236 EVs for max atk. A Murkrow with an Atk IV of 30 needs 240 EVs for max atk. Remember this when using Hidden Power.
    When using Eviolite, having even numbered defense stats gives a better net gain stats overall. Example: A Mienfoo with 116 EVs in Def (w/ a positive nature) and 36 EVs will have 21 Def and 18 SDef with Eviolite factored in. A Mienfoo with 36 Def (w/ a positive nature) and 116 SDef EVs will have 19 Def and 19 SDef with Eviolite factored in. Mienfoo 1 will have higher overall stats than Mienfoo 2 because its Defenses pre-eviolite are even numbers. Obviously, this has its uses, but think before applying it. You might need Mienfoo 2's extra 1 SDef point in some key calcs.
    Life Orb recoil is reduced to 1 if the user's HP is less than 20, so lowering a Pokémon using LO's IVs can help increase its longevity. Example: LO Bunnelby w/ 31 HP IVs has 20 HP and takes 2 damage in recoil per attack. LO Bunnelby w/ 23 HP IVs has 19 HP and take 1 damage in recoil per attack.
    Special Thanks to:
    Minority Suspect for a lot of probability calculations
    ZoroarkForever for the guide of EV’ing in Little Cup
    Bulbapedia for a lot of data and various lists

    Last edited by Desch on Tue 11 Apr - 16:21; edited 25 times in total

    Advanced Mechanics Gohan10

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    Post by Red on Thu 21 May - 6:56

    I'm gonna love you for this post. Smile
    Such a cool post. I'm sure, It'll help a lot for any player.

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    Post by Immanent God LANCE on Thu 21 May - 19:00

    Awesome guide.

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    Post by Desch on Thu 21 May - 19:40

    Thanks a lot Red, and Lance! Very Happy

    Glad to see you enjoying, learning from and thinking so highly of my guide! It took a long time to write, but I am glad I did it, nonetheless. I think I have included just about everything I could include, but if there is something you'd like me to add, then just give me a word and I'll add it (if it is relevant).

    Anyways, I did some edits, added some things (Item Dependent Attacks, moves with "infinite" accuracy, abilities on the lists that only mentioned items, etc) and did some minor edits in the layout.

    Also, I am not 100% sure if absolutely everything I wrote is correct (as I did make a few assumptions). I think it is only the critical hits, that I am not sure if it is entirely correct, but I'll just change it if it isn't, after looking more into it.

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    Post by Sheetanshu on Fri 22 May - 19:32

    Nice interesting guide, can help a rookie make smoother plays and can help a veteran make slight adjustments in their game which are the key in important close matches.

    Cheers dude, keep up the good work!!!

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    Post by Mumu on Thu 30 Jul - 9:51

    Do dry skin hurt the user by 1/16 ? I thought it was 1/8, is there a way to test to confirm it ?
    Also, do Marvel Scale raise both defense by 50% when active ? Or only Physical Defense ?
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    Post by Desch on Thu 30 Jul - 21:46

    I'm the one at fault here, actually. Dry Skin is +1/8 in rain and -1/8 in sun.
    Marvel Scale only boosts the physical defence. I have edited this in.

    Also, I did put in the wrong values for the stat-boost modifications, so I will try to correct that in the nearest future. If someone has other questions, or notices any other flaw, then feel free to ask about it.

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